How to Help Dad Feel Connected When New Baby Comes

Congratulations, baby makes three!  Family and friends gather around to celebrate, mom and baby receive gifts and attention while dad is sometimes left out. Dad needs the chance to be involved and to have opportunities to bond with his baby as well.   How can dad share the joy and the work of this new bundle of love? 

Keep reading for some tips to help dads feel involved and connected with their newborn.

  1. Start before the baby is born.  When you find out you are pregnant you can simply say, “we are pregnant.”  Yes, mom facilitates the growth and development of the baby- her body is the one that changes but dad made a significant contribution to the wondrous event.  Mom and dad can both be involved in planning for the baby- what color for the baby’s room, etc.  Dad can be included in the baby shower or have a new dad party such as golfing with his buddies and dad can make positive health choices just like mom.
  2. In the hospital, dad needs the chance to kangaroo care the newborn also. Kangaroo care involves placing the baby on mom or dad’s bare chest.  This happens naturally if mom breast feeds, but dad needs time to bond with the baby also.  Once home, don’t just relegate dad to diaper changing duty as his only time to be with the baby. Let dad be involved in feeding.   “Once nursing is established, when your baby is about 4 weeks old, you both may want to introduce a pumped bottle so that dad can feed the baby (and mom can get some more sleep), …baby may resist initially, so keep the pumped bottle a consistent part of the evening routine.” (Stewart, 2015)
  3. Plan for, and ask for, Paternity leave giving new dad time off from work to spend with baby and practice his skills comforting and caring for the baby.
  4. Allow each parent to learn how to soothe baby in his or her way. Mom has motherly instincts, dad has fatherly instincts as well.  As long as parent and baby aren’t in danger, give each other the opportunity to figure out how to soothe, diaper, and feed the baby in their own way.

If you both made the effort to learn all you can through studying books, attending new baby and parenting classes, or other quality information, you can feel confident that you both are capable of caring for your new addition together.


Stewart, R.  (2015 September) Let Dad Be Dad: 6 Ways to Encourage New Fathers.  WebMD https://www.webmd.com/parenting/baby/features/let-dad-be-dad

Sax, L. MD, PhD 2016. The Collapse of Parenting

Sandler, E. (2015, July) Post-Baby Mental Health, For Dads.  Psychology Today https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/promoting-hope-preventing-suicide/201507/post-baby-mental-health-dads.

By Catherine Hansen, USU Extension Assistant Professor

Nine Tips to Help Youth Manage Screen Time

Not surprisingly, children are spending more time with screen media than ever before, and at younger ages. According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, the average 8-to-12-year-old child spends 4-to-6 hours a day watching or using screens. Teens spend up to 9 hours daily, and research also suggests that they spend an average of one hour daily on social media.

Excessive screen time often leads to less outdoor or physical activity, less interaction with family and friends, sleep challenges, and increased mood problems (depression, anxiety, etc.). Youth may also be exposed to developmentally inappropriate content, cyberbullying, predators, and more.

Despite this, not all screen time is bad. There are many benefits and opportunities, including connecting youth with friends and family, promoting social support and inclusion, and providing educational opportunities.

Parents play a critical role in helping children navigate the digital world. Consider these tips:

1. Set limits. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the World Health Organization encourage families to ensure plenty of time for physical activity and social interaction. There isn’t a magic number for the appropriate amount of screen time per child, but it is important that what they watch and play is quality, age appropriate, and that parents know what their child is doing.

2. Select high-quality media. While not all media has to be educational, help maximize screen time with media that helps children think critically, develops their creativity through creating songs, art, poetry, etc., or that helps them connect with and understand the world around them.

3. Spend time with your child. Screen time doesn’t have to be alone time. Watching and playing together can increase social interactions, learning, and bonding. 

4. Create boundaries and tech-free zones. Keep family mealtimes and gatherings screen-free to build social bonds and engage in two-way conversation. And since electronics can be a potential distraction after bedtime and can interfere with sleep, consider keeping screens out of their rooms. You may want to designate an inaccessible place to charge electronics at night or download apps that disable the device at bedtime.

5. Teach children to be good digital citizens. Share your expectations of how to act responsibly online and what your children should do if they see inappropriate content.

6. Discuss the importance of privacy and the dangers of predators. Youth need to know that once content is electronically shared, they will not be able to remove or delete it completely. Teach youth about privacy settings, and be sure to monitor their activity to help keep them safe.

7. Establish consequences. Consider setting time or location limits if your child has difficulty putting a phone away when you ask, watches inappropriate content, or engages in inappropriate media-related behavior.

8. Model the manners and behavior you want to see. Avoid texting in the car. Model good digital citizenship in your interactions with others online. Limit your own media use.

9. Create a family media plan. Agreed-upon expectations can help you establish healthy technology boundaries in your home. Create a family media plan that promotes open family discussion and rules about media use. Include topics such as balancing screen/online time, content boundaries, and not disclosing personal information. Having these conversations encourages age-appropriate critical thinking and digital literacy. For information on creating a family media plan, visit www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan.

Media and digital devices are an integrated part of our society today. They can be an excellent resource, but there should be boundaries. Digital devices can never replace the benefits of face-to-face interactions and learning. 

By: Naomi Brower, Utah State University Extension professor, Naomi.Brower@usu.edu and Elizabeth Davis, USU Extension associate professor, Elizabeth.Davis@usu.edu

Three Things to Consider with Student Loan Forgiveness and Delayed Repayment Plan

The long-awaited details of President Biden’s student-loan forgiveness plan have been officially announced. In summary, based on last year’s tax return, the plan cancels up to $10,000 of federal student loan debt for individuals making less than $125,000 per year (or households making less than $250,000). Pell grant recipients can qualify for up to $20,000 in loan forgiveness. (See full details of the student-loan forgiveness plan here.)

You may qualify for $10,000-$20,000 in student loan forgiveness, but keep in mind that whatever you owe beyond that will need to be repaid. The pause on federal student loan payments is extended through December 2022, with payments starting again in January 2023.

You can check your eligibility through the Department of Education (DOE) and sign up to receive email updates, which will be critical moving forward. If the DOE already has your income information, you could be granted forgiveness automatically. If not, applications will go live in December – another reason to sign up for updates at the DOE website. 

Here are three essential action items to consider for repayment.

1. Prep for Repayment. Adjust your spending now so you are ready to start making payments in January. It’s hard to believe that it’s been several years since people have been required to make payments on their student loans. How much will your monthly payment be in January? Can you pay yourself that amount in a separate savings account in September, October, November and December? Practice going without that income for a few months. Consider that you now have four months to get used to not spending that money on your discretionary expenses. Start setting it aside now as you’ll soon be required to pay your student loan bill, due every month beginning January 2023. Not sure where to start with budgeting? Sign up for a free personal finance webinar.

2. Watch for Scams. Don’t give money or information to people promising student loan forgiveness. Red flags include: charging upfront fees, asking for personal information over the phone or through email, pressure to decide quickly, asking you to cut off communication with your loan servicer, claiming to be affiliated with your loan servicer or the DOE, etc. If you experience this, cancel your payments, contact your servicer, and submit a report to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. You can also report it to the DOE.

3. Take Advantage of Time. The extended payment pause does mean that borrowers have four more months of no interest accruing on their debt. Now is the best time to work on lowering the principal balance (also lowering future interest fees). Making extra payments is the simplest way to do that. Create a free account at the USU Extension-sponsored PowerPay.org website to see how additional payments can impact your debt repayment strategy. 

By: Amanda Christensen, Utah State University Extension professor and Accredited Financial Counselor, Amanda.Christensen@usu.edu

Four Back-to-School Tips for Parents

Summer is winding down, and many children are hitting the books instead of the snooze button. In addition to encouraging children to stay organized and responsible with their time and activities, it is important to have conversations about social tips that will help their relationships with friends, teachers and other school employees.

Here are four things to discuss with your children as they head back to school:

  • Make time to be kind.  One of the best ways to make friends and a good first impression at school is to be kind. There are three simple things children of all ages can do – the three S’s – smile, serve and share. A smile is the first thing most people will see and remember. It shows friendliness, warmth and openness. Serving others in small ways will also open doors to friendship. A simple compliment or grabbing something that has fallen on the floor for someone can work wonders. Sharing paper, crayons or a treat can help as well. Parents can model these principles and invite their children to be kind and respectful to everyone.
  • Show gratitude. Just like with kindness, gratitude shows others you are open, thoughtful and humble. Children can give thanks to anyone they meet, from the bus driver, to the gym teacher, to the principal. They all work hard and need to hear expressions of thanks. Letters, texts and sticky notes are simple ways to show gratitude to others. Cultivating gratitude in children starts with parents’ willingness to express sincere thanks to others, especially their children.
  • Notice and appreciate the good in each day. Children are often bombarded with negativity, sometimes from the beginning of the day. From teasing and quizzes to homework and bad hair days, our brains are wired to focus and dwell on the tough things that happen. When children come home from school, ask about the best part of their day. Parents can do this at dinnertime or right before bedtime as well. It’s good to get good at noticing the good!
  • Be quick to forgive. New schedules and routines can bring new challenges and stress. Be patient with your children, especially the first few weeks of school. When parents keep their tone of voice low and are quick to forgive, it helps teach children to be quick to forgive as well. Similarly, teach children to be patient with others and quick to forgive offenses, including those from friends and teachers.

By: David Schramm, Utah State University Extension family life specialist, David.schramm@usu.edu

How Can I Foster a Growth Mindset in my ADHD Kids?

Social difficulties are common among children who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).  This can lead to negative interactions with others. William Pelham, Ph.D., director of the Center for Children and Families at the State University of New York, and an expert on ADHD, says, “Studies show that the average child with ADHD has one to two negative interactions per minute with parents, peers, and teachers if you extrapolate, that’s half a million negative interactions a year,” he continues, “What that means is that most of these kids’ interactions with other people are negative. They’re not the ones invited to birthday parties or over to another kid’s house to play. Either you sit back and let your child have those negative experiences, or you intervene early and do something to stop them.” (McCarty, 22).

One strategy that parents can implement as an early intervention is the idea of a growth mindset. Growth mindset teaches that the brain is always growing, and that children and adults can learn new things and improve their abilities if they apply hard work and effort. Research findings show that growth mindset among those individuals with ADHD helps them to self-regulate and cope more effectively. (Burnette, et al, 2020).  One of the benefits of fostering a growth mindset in ADHD children is helping them to understand that they do have some control over the way they think, which encourages positive and flexible thinking.  Psychologist Alana Yee shares several approaches parents can take to teach their child to have a growth mindset. More information and details about these approaches can be found in the full article which is linked in the Additional Resources at the end of this article.

  • Use daily growth mindset conversation starts.
    • “What did you do today that made you think hard?”
    • “What challenge or problem have you worked on today”
    • “What is something new you worked on today?”
    • “Was there anything that make you feel stuck today? …Great! What other ways could there be to solve this?”
    • “Can you think of a mistake you made today?”…Great! How can you use this mistake to do better next time?”
    • “Can you think of anything today that was easy for you? How can you make this more challenging?”
    • “What is something you would like to become better at? Who can you ask to help you with this?”
  • Share information about the brain. Encourage child to learn about the parts of the brain, how feelings are expressed, and how new information is processed. Reinforce that their brain can learn new skills and improve old ones.
  • Focus on the process of goal setting rather than on the goals themselves.
  • Make space for failure. Address the set-back and the skills they are lacking head on and talk to your child about the next steps for learning. Problem solve with them rather than dictate what they should do.
  • Anticipate explosive behavior and use it to their advantage. Learning about a growth mindset helps a child in the moment, during explosive behavior, and helps to decrease it in the long run. When you notice your child beginning to escalate, remind them in a calm and reassuring voice of what they have been learning about growth mindset. Once they have calmed down completely, review what worked and talk about how to implement this type of thinking again in the future.
  • Share stories of other people’s success. Sharing real-life examples of people who have overcome negative mindsets and find success through growth mindset are not only encouraging but illustrative to a child struggling to understand how to adjust negative thinking patterns. (Yee, 2018)

Additional Resources:

Being Strength-Minded: An Introduction to Growth Mindset

Developing a Growth Mindset with Carol Dweck

Growth Mindset for Children with ADHD, Anxiety, Autism, and Other Challenges

Growth Mindset for Younger Students

Growth  Mindset

What Should I Do When my Child says” I’m Dumb”?

5 Powerful Ways to Teach Growth Mindset to Children with Special Needs 


Burnette, J. L., Babij, A. D., Knouse, O., & Knouse, L. E. (2020). Self-Regulation mindsets: Relationship to coping, executive functioning, and ADHD. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 39(2). https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2020.39.02.101

Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. Random House.

McCarthy, L. F. (2022, April 21). How does behavior therapy work? ADDitude: Inside the ADHD Mind. Retrieved August 4, 2022, from https://www.additudemag.com/how-does-behavioral-therapy-parent-training-work/

Yee, A. (2018, November 7). Being strength-minded: An introduction to growth mindset. Foothills Academy. Retrieved August 4, 2022, from https://www.foothillsacademy.org/community/articles/growth-mindset

By Christina Pay, Extension Assistant Professor

Need Help Making Sense of Home Canning? Here Are Twelve Tips

While many people know and understand basic freezing and dehydrating methods for preserving foods, it becomes a different story when they contemplate bottling. 

          Food preservation is a science- and research-based practice. It is not the same as creative cooking. When preserving food with water-bath or pressure canning, a kitchen must be turned into a laboratory by following instructions exactly and using proper procedures. That is why many home canners are disappointed to learn that their favorite fresh salsa or grandma’s stew is not recommended for home canning, nor are things like butter, bacon, or pureed squash.

          Here are 12 tips to help guide both the novice and the seasoned home preservation enthusiast:

  1. Follow canning directions exactly.
  2. Always use up-to-date, scientifically tested recipes, and only use approved canning methods (boiling water-bath or pressure).
  3. Make altitude adjustments by adding more time to water bath canning or increasing pressure for pressure-canned products.
  4. Be certain that canned products have a proper lid seal.
  5. Don’t add extra starch, flour, or other thickeners to a recipe.
  6. Don’t add extra onions, chilies, bell peppers, or other vegetables to salsas.
  7. Be sure to properly vent the pressure canner.
  8. Get your dial-type pressure canner gauges tested annually.
  9. Don’t use an oven instead of a water bath for processing.
  10. Be sure to properly acidify canned tomatoes.
  11. Do not cool the pressure canner under running water.
  12. Do not let food prepared for “hot pack” processing cool in jars before placing them in the canner for processing. 

            If you have questions, the best option for finding safe, scientifically based answers for proper food preservation is to contact your local USU Extension office. For location and contact information, visit https://extension.usu.edu/locations. Additional canning information can be found at canning.usu.edu. Or check out our Preserve the Harvest online course here. Use code PRESERVE22 for 30% off.

            The satisfaction that comes from preserving food is well worth the time and effort it takes. With instruction from approved resources along with a dash of common sense, this season may be the best ever for adding to your food storage shelves!

By: Kathy Riggs, Utah State University Extension family and consumer sciences professor, kathleen.riggs@usu.edu, 435-586-8132

What are Some Fun, New Ideas for Date Night?

When you hear, “date night,” what do you picture? Getting a great babysitter to watch the kids and heading out for dinner and a movie? Or maybe, “who has time for date night?” is what flashes through your mind. Whether it’s been years since your last date night or you’re looking for ways to shake up your routine, we’ve got a few ideas for you.

1. Talk To Each Other

With busy days, we may not realize that time to talk with our partner has slipped away. Just the act of communicating about intimate and vulnerable topics with another person can strengthen our connections (Aron et al, 1997). Here are some ideas for how to set time aside for talking with examples linked:

2. Play Together

Play promotes greater closeness and positive feelings between people which has been associated with better couple bonding, communication, and ability to resolve conflicts (Aune & Wong, 2002; Vanderbleek et al, 2011). What that play looks like is entirely up to you. Play should be lighthearted and something that you both find fun, funny, or entertaining (Aune & Wong, 2002). Here are a few ideas and links to get you started: 

3. Do Something Totally New

It’s easy to get stuck in a comfortable pattern. However, boredom can be harmful to our relationships and “lack of novelty” or not having enough new experiences with your partner can lead to boredom (Ursu & Turliuc, 2019). Finding something that pushes you out of your comfort zone a little or allows you and your partner to have a new experience together might be just what you need: 

  • Take a class (online or in person) and learn something new together
  • Find something happening in Utah that you’ve never heard of and try it out
  • Go to an amusement park or arcade without the kids 

The most important factor in any date night is the people involved. Making the effort to spend time together regularly and connecting in ways that you both find enjoyable is the most important goal. These few ideas can get you started on new adventures, but don’t be afraid to find more and create your own date nights, too!

Additional Resources

Date Your Mate Adventure Guides for areas all around Utah
More Articles and Videos on Improving Couple Relationships


Aron, A, Melinat, E, Aron, E.N., Vallone, R.D., & Bator, R.J. (1997). The experimental generation of interpersonal closeness: A procedure and some preliminary findings. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23(4), 363-377.
Aune, K.S. & Wong, N.C.H. (2002). Antecedents and consequences of adult play in romantic relationships. Personal Relationships, 9, 279-286.  
Ursu, A. & Turliuc, M.N. (2019). When partners get bored in their relationships? A mixed method and cross cultural approach of romantic relational boredom. International Journal of Education and Psychology in the Community, 9(1&2), 132-148.
Vanderbleek, L., Robinson III, E.H., Casado-Kehoe, M., & Young, M.E. (2011). The relationship between play and couple satisfaction and stability. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 19(2), 132-139. DOI: 10.1177/1066480711399729

By Chapel Taylor-Olsen, BA and Ashley Yaugher, Professional Practice Extension Assistant Professor, PhD

August Yard and Garden Checklist

The heat is on, and yards and gardens are trying to survive the high temperatures and drought conditions. Consider these tips from the USU Extension Gardeners Almanac to help your garden succeed. Also included are links for further information.

  • Plant cover crops to provide “green manure” to the garden.
  • Collect and store seeds from your garden.
  • Learn about how and when to harvest watermelon and cantaloupe.
  • Harvest potatoes as soon as tubers begin forming.
  • Harvest garlic and onions once the tops have dried down. Allow them to cure (dry) for 2-3 weeks before storing.
  • Store potatoes, garlic and onions in a cool/dry location (32-40°F) away from apples.
  • Plant trees and shrubs as the weather becomes cooler.
  • Go hiking in the hills to enjoy autumn colors.
  • Divide crowded, spring-blooming perennials.
  • Consider composting fall leaves.
  • Check pears for ripeness once the fruit twists off the tree easily and seeds are dark colored, and allow them to finish ripening off the tree.
  • Apply a slow-release lawn fertilizer early in September to provide long-lasting results throughout the fall months.
  • Remember that as temperatures cool, turfgrass requires minimal irrigation each week. See irrigation needs in your area.
  • Plant new lawns or repair insect/diseased areas with grass seed, allowing 4-6 weeks for establishment before heavy frosts.
  • Aerate compacted sites with a hollow core aerator when turfgrass is actively growing (September-October).

Pests and Problems:

Consider taking an online gardening course. Courses cover topics such as container vegetable gardening, creating the perfect soil, planting trees, and controlling pests. Courses are geared to both beginning and professional gardeners. Use the code “GARDEN5” at checkout to get $5 off.

Explore more gardening tips on Extension’s yard and garden website. For drought information and tips, click here.

Four Tips to Make Summer Safe 

Many families are heading outdoors for one last outing before school starts. Whether in the water or hills, on the ballfield or in the backyard, it’s essential to keep family members safe from sun, insects, and injuries. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website includes information on family health. A summary of their tips for staying safe is included below. For additional information, visit https://www.cdc.gov/healthequity/features/kidsafety/index.html.

           1. Master water safety. Swimming is a great way to cool off and get exercise; however, drowning is the leading cause of death among children ages 1 to 4. 

  • Supervise children at all times when in or around water.
  • Teach kids to swim so they feel comfortable and confident in the water.
  • Help prevent water illnesses. Talk to children about not using the pool as a toilet, encourage bathroom breaks, and change toddlers’ diapers often.
  • Install a four-sided fence around home pools.
  • While boating, kayaking, paddle boarding, or other water sports, make sure everyone wears a properly fitted life jacket.

           2. Be sun smart. Even healthy children and adults can overheat or get sunstroke when participating in strenuous activities in hot weather. If someone shows signs of heat exhaustion, move them to a cool location and seek medical help. The CDC website includes a list of signs to watch for.

  • Wear loose, lightweight, light-colored clothing.
  • Schedule outdoor activities in the morning and evening hours.
  • Seek shade. UV rays are most harmful midday. If you need to be outdoors, sit under a tree, bring an umbrella, or use a pop-up tent.
  • Take cool baths or showers.
  • Use sunscreen with at least SPF (sun protection factor) 15 and UVA (ultraviolet A) and UVB (ultraviolet B) protection when outdoors. A few severe sunburns can lead to skin cancer in the years ahead. 
  • Wear a hat and sunglasses to protect your scalp and eyes.

           3. Protect against ticks and mosquitos. Zika, West Nile Virus, and Lyme disease can be transmitted by insects. 

  • Use an effective insect repellent. Products containing DEET, picaridin, IR3535, and some natural oils provide long-lasting protection. Acaricides (a pesticide) can reduce ticks, but shouldn’t be relied on for complete protection.
  • Check yourself and your children for ticks after being outdoors, especially if you have been camping or hiking. If you find a tick, instructions for effectively removing it are available on the CDC website.

           4. Prevent injuries. Falls at home and on the playground are common causes of injuries and trips to the emergency room.

  • Make sure playgrounds are well-maintained and have soft landing areas.
  • Wear appropriate protective gear when participating in sports.
  • Teach family members basic first aid.
  • Teach family members about potential fire hazards and what to do, whether camping or grilling in the backyard.

Enjoy the rest of summer, and stay safe out there!

By: Kathy Riggs, Utah State University Extension professor, Kathleen.Riggs@usu.edu

Raising a Confident Child

A confident child is one who has a positive self-image, speaks positively about themselves, knows that they are loved unconditionally, can do things for themselves, and, have all the tools  they need to believe they can do hard things (UPMC, 2022). With that definition in mind, building confidence in young children may seem like a daunting task. Where do you, as a parent, begin? Parents often wish for a parenting manual that tells them what to do. However, you can help your child build confidence by understanding some basic principles and applying some helpful practices. 

Focus on Identifying and Building Strengths 

According to the American Psychological Association (APA), children build confidence through watching, experiencing, and reacting to the environment around them. Play, interaction with peers, failure, success, and parent involvement are all instrumental factors that influence how a child learns to be confident as they begin to explore their place in the world (Alvord, et al., 2020). 

What does it look like to have a confident child? Children who are confident are not necessarily loud, extroverted, or even voluntary public speakers. Confidence in children can grow when parents help identify and build children’s strengths, nurture them with compassion, and support them in activities they enjoy. Dr. Carol Dweck, in her book, “Mindset”, encourages praising the process, not the person. That is, praise the effort and work of the child instead of telling them they are a good girl or good boy. Avoid placing labels but acknowledge their efforts. Praising the process reinforces children’s efforts, dedication, and perseverance, which is directly linked to confidence. 

Model Resilience

Teaching your child to become resilient will increase their confidence.  Resilient children learn to push through adversity and keep moving forward.  Researchers have learned that “the ability of parents to support and promote resilience positively influences children’s individual resources and positive adjustment. Children that live with parents who can be models of resilience promoting behavioral, emotional, and cognitive processes can also positively adapt in the face of stressful situations” (Wigley, et al 2021). Children learn to respond to their environment by watching how their parents respond. If a parent reacts to challenges with frustration, anger, or fear, a child may learn that this is the response they should also have when they come across challenges. Instead, parents can show their child that challenges might be hard, but by moving forward and doing the best they can challenges can be overcome. 

Foster a Growth Mindset

Confident children often develop a growth mindset. This means that they purposely challenge themselves to do new things and develop new skills. Helping them to understand that when they make mistakes, they can learn from them. This takes the focus off failure and provides opportunities for growth.  Children can learn to view challenges as opportunities. They will understand that through hard work and effort they can gain new skills and abilities. Children with a growth mindset feel pride in their accomplishments even if they have not won. They take responsibility for mistakes and successes, and most importantly feel respected by the adults in their life (Cunningham, 2022).   


Alvord, Mary K, et al. “Resilience Guide for Parents and Teachers.” American Psychological
Association, American Psychological Association, 26 Aug. 2020, https://www.apa.org/topics/resilience/guide-parents-teachers 

Cunningham , B. (2022). The Importance of Positive Self-Esteem for Kids. Understood. 
Retrieved June 16, 2022, from https://www.understood.org/en/articles/the-importance-of-positive-self-esteem-for-kids 

Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Random House.

Gordon, S. (2022, January 26). How to teach kids to engage in positive self-talk (L. A. Kirby, 
Ed.).Verywell Family. Retrieved June 21, 2022, from 

Self-esteem in children: 1-8 years. Raising Children Network. (2021, May 7). Retrieved June 16, 
2022, from https://raisingchildren.net.au/toddlers/behaviour/understanding-behaviour/about-self-esteem

UPMC. “Building Your Child’s Self-Esteem: Children’s Hospital.” Children’s Hospital of 
Pittsburgh, 2022, www.chp.edu/for-parents/health-tools/parent-resources/parenting-tips/building-your-childs-self-esteem

By Tiffany Sanderson, Intern, & Christina Pay, Extension Assistant Professor