1

Combating Loneliness During the Holidays

The holidays bring mistletoe, caroling, eggnog, gift-giving, family, and friends. However, for some, the holidays can also bring loneliness. A recent survey from the American Association of Retired Persons found that 31% of respondents said they had felt lonely during the holiday season sometime in the past five years, and 41 percent worried about a family member or friend feeling alone. Though loneliness is common, there are things you can do to enjoy the season, no matter what your situation. Consider these tips.

Service: Think of someone in need or a good cause to support when you are feeling down. Service can help improve your mood and sense of self-worth. Service has been shown to improve conflict resolution skills and vocational capacity among adolescents. An act of kindness can be as easy as helping a family member, friend, or neighbor in need. If you are looking for a service opportunity, an internet search can help you find people and organizations with needs in your area.

Social relationships: We all need friends, family, and loved ones. However, even those with loved ones around them can feel lonely or have mental health challenges. If you start feeling lonely this year, reach out to friends or family members. Something as simple as sending a text or engaging in a conversation can lift your spirits.

Self-love: Some psychologists believe that our level of self-love is connected to our ability to love others and that to love yourself, you need to know and take care of yourself. Doing something nice for yourself can help increase your happiness. For example, give yourself a gift, write in your journal, watch a movie, or enjoy nature. Whatever it is, do something meaningful to you that makes you happy.

Gratitude: Even when circumstances seem bleak, practicing gratitude can help you remember the good things you have in life. Studies show that gratitude is associated with well-being and can be used to help face difficult times. To increase your gratitude, write a note, verbally express appreciation to those around you, or make a gratitude list. 

There are things you can do to help combat loneliness and poor mental health during the holiday season. Implementing ideas from the examples provided may help improve your mood and make the holidays happier.

For a list of references and citations, click here.




Once You’re Done with Holiday Shopping, Stop Looking, Stop Spending

With inflation eating away at our budgets, starting the holidays with a spending plan is more important than ever. Have your family help you determine things that are most important this year, then look for ways to reduce, simplify, and save money. Consider these tips.

* Create a budget and stick to it. Don’t be so excited about getting a good deal that you end up overspending. It’s easy to get sucked into buying just one more item for someone, then you buy it for everyone, and the spending plan goes out the window. Encourage your spouse or partner to honor the budget, too.

* Make your list and check it twice. When you’ve finished buying what’s on your list, stop looking, and stop spending time at the stores. Delete shopping apps on your devices, even temporarily until after the holidays, so you’re not tempted to look and continue spending. 

* Avoid going into debt, which is more important this year than ever since credit cards will be harder to pay off due to higher interest rates. If you already have accrued holiday debt, make a plan to pay it off quickly to avoid more interest and fees.

* Modify your meals. Instead of hosting a big dinner and paying for everything yourself, turn it into a potluck and share the cost and work. Or try having a dessert night.

* Cancel subscriptions. Free up cash to spend next month by canceling subscriptions and automatic deliveries. Do you really need five streaming services? Or can you subscribe to one for a few months and then switch to another? If you have regular, automatic deliveries coming to your home, could a few of them be postponed a month or more? 

* Shop at stores that have a price-match guarantee. Be sure to keep your receipts; then later, if something is further discounted, you can get a refund, usually within 30 days.

* Look for free activities. Enjoy driving around to see Christmas lights; go caroling or sledding; get outside for a hike or walk; enjoy hot chocolate or coffee with friends; check for free holiday concerts and pageants in your area; read holiday books with the family.

* Involve children in conversations about adjusting spending due to higher costs. Older children, especially, will benefit from talking about being frugal and prudent, which can help prepare them for adulthood.

* Don’t let rising costs take the fun out of the holidays. Advertising and peer pressure can steal away the true meaning of the holidays. Reminisce about your favorite holidays in the past. What made those memories stand out? Gifts and spending are usually part of the celebration, but for many people, the holidays are more about family, friends, tradition, spiritual rituals, and love. Don’t let the stress of inflation take away the true meaning of the season for you. 

By: Melanie Jewkes, Utah State University Extension professor, Melanie.Jewkes@usu.edu




How Much Caffeine Is Too Much?

Caffeine can provide a boost of energy, help you become more alert, and improve your mood. Sounds great, right? Unfortunately, many people don’t realize that caffeine is a drug that stimulates the nervous system and can cause negative side effects.

Depending on the amount of caffeine consumed, one or more of the following may occur: jitteriness, anxiety, irritability, increased blood pressure, stomach irritation, decreased length and quality of sleep, headaches, and abnormal heart rhythm.

The impacts of caffeine and the intensity of side effects can differ for everyone. What is okay for one person could be too much for another. The key is to watch for adverse side effects and decrease or avoid caffeine intake. Extremely high caffeine ingestion can trigger serious health problems such as heart attack, stroke, or even death. Caffeine can cause serious health challenges for children.

The Mayo Clinic recommends the following daily limits of caffeine:

·         Adults: less than 400 mg/day

·         Adolescents: less than 100 mg/day

·         Children: 0 mg/day

Caffeine can be harmful to some groups of people. Seek advice about caffeine consumption from your health care provider if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, have a sleep disorder, migraine, anxiety, GERD, ulcers, or high blood pressure. Problems with heart rhythm, heart rate, and certain medications can also have detrimental consequences.

If consumed regularly, a person can become dependent on caffeine. As little as 100 mg/day can cause dependency, so monitor your intake. The chart below shows commonly consumed caffeinated beverages and the amount of caffeine they contain.

Name Standard Amount Caffeine in Standard Amount Caffeine in 16 Oz.
Energy Drinks
5-Hour Energy 2 oz. 200 mg 1,600 mg
Sobe No Fear 16 oz. 182 mg 182 mg
Monster 16 oz. 172 mg 172 mg
Rockstar 16 oz. 160 mg 160 mg
Red Bull 8.4 oz. 79 mg 151 mg
Coffee, Tea
Brewed Coffee 8 oz. 163 mg 324 mg
Average Coffee 8 oz. 95 mg 190 mg
Iced Tea 8 oz. Average of 47 mg 94 mg
Soft Drinks
Mountain Dew 12 oz. 54 mg          72 mg
Coke 12 oz. 34 mg          45 mg
Diet Coke 12 oz. 45 mg          60 mg
Pepsi 12 oz. 38 mg          51 mg
Sprite 12 oz. 0 mg           0 mg
Others
Chocolate Milk 8 oz. 5 mg 10 mg
Dark Chocolate 1 oz. 20 mg 320 mg
Milk Chocolate 1 oz. 6 mg 96 mg
Cold Relief Meds 1 tablet 30 mg
Vivarin 1 tablet 200 mg
Excedrin 2 tablets 130 mg

To reduce caffeine consumption, gradually swap caffeinated drinks with non-caffeinated drinks. Read labels on drinks, food, and medications to determine caffeine content, and stay away from those that contain high amounts. Replace your caffeinated beverage with water. Water can help flush caffeine out of your system and keep you properly hydrated. Indications of caffeine withdrawal include drowsiness, headaches, irritability, or trouble concentrating, but symptoms should last only a few days. Monitoring your caffeine consumption and following these recommendations and guidelines can lead to improved health and a longer life.

To view all references, see the article on Extension.usu.edu.

By: Cindy Nelson, Utah State University Extension associate professor, cindy.nelson@usu.edu




Outside Factors Don’t Have to Take the Thanks out of Thanksgiving

It won’t come as a surprise that Thanksgiving dinner may require some adjustments this year. In addition to the inflation factor, many Utah turkey farms have been hit by avian influenza – especially those in Sanpete County. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, a count taken last month found the virus was responsible for farmers putting down approximately 700,000 birds to avoid spreading it to neighboring farms. That’s roughly 23% of turkeys raised annually throughout the state.

            Some grocery stores around the state may use turkeys as a “loss leader pricing” product this year, a marketing strategy that prices products lower than the cost to produce them in order to attract new customers or sell additional products. But since not all stores will do this, families may need to substitute another source of protein, purchase a smaller bird, or share the cost with family members and guests as they gather to feast.

           Consider these tips to make Thanksgiving a time to give thanks despite rising costs and fewer turkeys. 

           * Consider having a simpler meal and involve the family in menu planning. Perhaps cranberry sauce isn’t as necessary as you thought. Maybe only a few people enjoy stuffing, but potatoes and gravy are on everyone’s list. Also, if there are so many menu options they won’t all fit on a single plate, consider eliminating some of the less popular foods. In addition, consider what menu items can be made from scratch rather than purchasing them from the store.

           * Shop smart. Before shopping, take inventory of what you have in the pantry. Watch for coupons in the mail or online. Coupon savings can add up quickly when used purposefully for foods you normally use. (However, they won’t save you money if you purchase foods you likely won’t use just because you have a coupon!) Remember to have a snack or meal before shopping, and leave behind lovable distractions such as small children or impulsive spouses. 

           * Remember traditions. What are the most time-honored things you do that bind generations together in your family? If everyone enjoys taking a turn expressing what they are grateful for because that’s what grandpa always did, keep the tradition alive. Also, don’t be afraid to try new activities or events that could become traditions. 

           * Keep conversations positive and upbeat. Be deliberate in staying away from potentially volatile topics, such as politics.

           * Reach out to others. Thanksgiving is a great time to serve others who may not have connections to family and friends. Consider calling, visiting or inviting someone to dinner who may be alone. Or take a pie or treat to someone who is homebound. 

           While Thanksgiving dinner may give way to a less traditional feast this year due to tighter budgets and fewer turkeys for sale, there is still plenty to celebrate and be grateful for as we kick off the holiday season.




Gearing Up for Holiday Baking

Though holiday baking is a few weeks away, now is a great time to take stock of and renew your baking supplies. This will ensure fresh, high-quality end products. Karin Allen, Utah State University Extension food quality specialist, provides insights on common baking ingredients, summarized below, by asking: What happens as the product ages? Can it still be used? How should it be stored?

It’s important to note that none of the ingredients listed below become harmful if eaten beyond their best-if-used-by dates, but freshness and taste will likely be compromised.

Flour: As flour ages, the starch changes very little. However, when the proteins that normally form gluten are exposed to air, they can change enough that it limits the amount of gluten that can be formed. Can it still be used? Yes, but it is best to use flour over a year old in products that don’t need a lot of formed gluten, including cakes and cookies. Use new flour for bread and chewy cookies.

To store flour, keep it in a tightly sealed container away from heat and moisture. To prolong the shelf-life of whole wheat flour, store it in the freezer inside freezer bags. Otherwise it will go rancid within 6 months.

Eggs: It isn’t easy to judge the freshness of eggs from the outside. Though the shells appear solid, they are actually very porous and allow moisture to escape. This is why old eggs float in water. Eggs may be used beyond the freshness date on the carton as long as they have been refrigerated. Older eggs can be used for making cookies but may require 1-2 teaspoons of water per egg, or the dough can be dry. Use only fresh eggs in cakes, cream puffs, and meringue.

The American Egg Board cautions against storing eggs at room temperature, so refrigerate them until you use them. They can also be frozen. See instructions at: http://extension.usu.edu/foodstorage/files/uploads/how_old_is_too_old.pdf.

Fat: After containers are opened, fats, such as shortening or lard, and oils, such as canola or olive oil, are exposed to air and will turn rancid within a relatively short period – from a few days to a few months. Using fats after they have become rancid will affect the flavor and aroma of foods. Therefore, if the oil or fat gives an off odor, do not use it for baking or making icing.

Fats such as butter, shortening, and oils do not need to be refrigerated or frozen, but they will last much longer if they are. Cooler temperatures slow the chemical reaction that causes rancidity.

Sugar: Granulated sugar does not change or go rancid, but it may occasionally develop an off-aroma that will not affect the flavor of baked goods. Soften brown sugar that has hardened by placing a slice of bread in a bag with the brown sugar, sealing it, then waiting up to 24 hours for the moisture in the bread to soften the brown sugar. For a faster method, soften it in the microwave oven. Crystalized honey can be heated in a pan of simmering water to melt the crystals.

Store sugar in an air-tight container away from moisture and insects. Sugar and honey do not need to be refrigerated or frozen to maintain quality or lengthen shelf-life.

Other common ingredients in holiday baked goods include baking powder, chocolate and chocolate chips, nuts, spices, extracts, and flavored oils. Chocolate may develop a white layer on the surface if storage temperatures are too warm, which can cause problems if you use it for dipping. The oil in nuts can cause them to go rancid quickly. Prevent this by freezing them for long-term storage. Spices lose potency over time, but adding more spice than is called for will help increase the strength. Extracts contain alcohol, making their flavor stable for long periods of time at room temperature.

To have the highest quality baked goods this holiday season, take stock of your baking supplies now. Fresh ingredients that are properly stored will help guarantee high-quality holiday foods.

By: Kathleen Riggs, Utah State University Extension professor, Kathleen.Riggs@usu.edu, and Karin Allen, USU Extension food quality specialist, Karin.Allen@usu.edu




November Yard and Garden Tips

With snow falling early in many areas of the state, gardeners may have been caught off guard. Make sure your yard is ready for winter by finishing the last few tasks. Consider these tips and links from the Utah State University Extension Gardeners Almanac.

  • If natural precipitation is sparse and the ground is not frozen, water evergreen trees and shrubs to ensure they are well hydrated.
  • Blow out irrigation systems.
  • Winterize lawn mowers and rototillers by draining the gas or adding a fuel stabilizer. Be sure to follow manufacturer recommendations.
  • Clean and sharpen garden tools and treat them with oil or other rust-inhibiting products.
  • Disconnect hoses from water spouts to avoid freezing damage.
  • If you haven’t mowed your grass for the final time, cut it to a height of 1-to-1½ inches to minimize disease problems.
  • Apply a quick-release nitrogen fertilizer after the last mowing for early greening next spring.
  • For a complete list of tips for putting the yard and garden to bed, click here.
  • For general gardening tips, visit garden.usu.edu where you will find information on gardening courses, drought resources, and the Extension Gardener’s Almanac with monthly tips.



Helping Your Child Adapt to Changes

The past few years have been full of change, adjustment, and relearning. While we are all learning to navigate these changes in addition to other normal life challenges, parents also have the added responsibility to help their children. Consider these tips on how to help your child successfully navigate changes.

  1. Be open and honest. Children look to caring adults for advice and guidance. Talk about potential changes and what they can expect. Be as open as possible with them about your thoughts and feelings, while also being sensitive to what they can understand developmentally. Acknowledge their fears and answer their questions the best that you can.
  2. Help children explore their feelings about change. Encourage children to use writing, drawing or other creative methods to explore their feelings about changes.
  3. Involve children in decisions about change. While they may not be able to control changes they are experiencing, including them in decisions can help them feel more in control.
  4. Keep their routine as normal as possible. Children need stability and structure. Daily, predictable routines can provide comfort, stability, and dependability to children, especially during times of change.
  5. Put yourself in their shoes. When compared to adults, children have limited experiences. Some things that are very important to them may seem insignificant to adults that have more experience and perspective. Make an effort to see situations from your child’s perspective and respond with empathy.
  6. Get support. Work together with teachers and child care providers to support children through big changes. When needed, seek professional help for support.

Change is inevitable and will happen to everyone. By following these tips, you can know you are doing what you can to support youth in adapting to changes successfully.

Additional resources:

Signs of distress in children and how to help them reduce stress and support their well-being: https://www.unicef.org/parenting/child-care/how-to-recognize-signs-of-distress

Teaching children positive coping skills:  https://www.easternflorida.edu/community-resources/child-development-centers/parent-resource-library/documents/positive-coping-skills-during-life-changes.pdf

References

Dalton, L., Rapa, E., & Stein, A. (2020) Protecting the psychological health of children through effective communication about COVID-19. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 4(5), 346-347. https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S2352-4642%2820%2930097-3

Stephens, K. (2007). Ways to teach children positive coping skills during life changes. Parenting Exchange. https://www.easternflorida.edu/community-resources/child-development-centers/parent-resource-library/documents/positive-coping-skills-during-life-changes.pdf

Unicef. (n.d.) How to recognize signs of distress in children. https://www.unicef.org/parenting/child-care/how-to-recognize-signs-of-distress

By Naomi Brower, Extension Professor and AJ Evans, USU Extension Intern




Don’t be Spooked If Spiders Creep Indoors This Fall

As fall temperatures cool, spider encounters in homes become more common. This happens as spiders near the end of their life cycles and are searching for mates and places to lay their egg sacks. Fortunately, these encounters do not need to be scary, as most species of regional spiders are not risky to humans.

Spiders are highly beneficial to the environment and people. They are predators of insects and are also an excellent food source for insects and wildlife that we often enjoy, including praying mantises, birds, and mammals. The vast majority of spiders are also unaggressive and can even be considered docile. They come in a wide array of colors and shapes, and their diversity in ecology and behavior is truly incredible. So, perhaps they should be appreciated more than feared.

Common spiders you may see this fall include cellar spiders, wolf spiders, and hobo spiders.

Cellar spiders are named because of their habit of gathering in dark, cool, and moist places – usually cellars. Their cobwebs can often be seen in ceiling joists forming large mats. Having only six eyes and a “violin” pattern behind their eyes, these spiders can resemble brown recluse spiders to the untrained eye. Cellar spiders are not dangerous to people.

Wolf spiders are aptly named because of their hunting methods of stalking, ambushing, pouncing, and capturing prey. This is a contrast to other spiders that use webs to capture their prey. Wolf spiders have an easily identified eye pattern – four smaller eyes on the bottom, two large eyes in the center, and two smaller eyes on top. Giant wolf spiders (1.5” to 2” in diameter) are commonly encountered in Utah in the fall. Like other wolf spiders, they are not of medical concern.

Hobo spiders are one of the most common indoor spiders found in northern Utah. It is currently undetermined if their bite causes necrotic lesions in humans. Hobos cannot be identified by color alone, but they can be identified by the Utah Plant Pest Diagnostic Lab (UPPDL) at USU. Visit the website at extension.usu.edu/pests/uppdl/ for information and instructions on how to submit a sample. Remember that there are related spiders that look similar to hobos. Grass spiders are often responsible for the small funnel webs abundant in shrubs and grass, and they are not harmful to people.

If you have been bitten, the only way to confirm the spider’s identity is to collect it and have it identified. You can rarely identify spider bites based on symptoms alone, especially if the bite marks are no longer visible. If you experience a reaction to a bite or have symptoms that mimic a severe bite, seek medical attention. Overall, spiders in Utah carry a very low risk when you consider their abundance, presence, and behavior.

By: Nick Volesky, Utah State University Extension Integrated Pest Management team, Nick.Volesky@usu.edu, with information from Zach Schumm and Ryan Davis, former Extension arthropod diagnosticians




Working Through Religious Differences in Marriage

Disagreements with someone you love can be challenging. The conversations can be uncomfortable, especially about firmly held beliefs. Differences in religious beliefs or spirituality can even become a source of pain and discontent if not addressed in a respectful and accepting manner. 

According to the Pew Research Center, the religious landscape of the United States is rapidly changing. With adults who identify as non-affiliated, atheist, or agnostic increasing yearly, changes and differences in religiosity and spirituality have the potential to negatively impact relationships. This is further complicated because these things affect more than Sunday worship, including decisions on parenting, finances, and friendships. Even couples practicing the same religion may not agree on religious or spiritual practices, including how often to attend church service or engage in church activities. It is important for couples to recognize the pitfalls and potential for hurt when engaging in a mixed faith relationship or when one partner’s beliefs change, no longer aligning with their spouse’s beliefs. 

In spite of the challenges that come from significantly different beliefs, there are many mixed-faith marriages and relationships that thrive.

Consider these tips from John Gottman, psychologist, author, and relationship expert, to help navigate religious differences in intimate relationships. 

1. Explore your own relationship with your faith.
There is a difference between identifying with a religion or spiritual practice and engaging in that faith. Explore your religious or spiritual identity and what that means to you. It is necessary to understand your own faith identity in order to navigate the differences with your partner. Here are some questions to consider:

  • Did you grow up in a religious or spiritual household? If so, what was practiced? What was your experience like?
  • What brings you peace? What helps you get through hard times?
  • Which aspects of your religious or spiritual beliefs do you hold onto tightly?
  • Which aspects do you feel more flexible about?

 
2. Acknowledge the differences and what they will mean for your life together.
Avoidance is not a sustainable option. It is important to identify the differences that may affect you so you can plan together on how to best manage them as a couple. According to Gottman, 69% of problems in relationships are perpetual, meaning they are not solvable. While that number sounds high, it is reassuring to know that this is normal and includes happily functioning couples. Instead of trying to change the other person’s mind or beliefs, approach these conversations with curiosity and interest, try to understand your partner’s point of view, and realize that this is an opportunity to increase your love for them.

The way you start a conversation can predict how the rest of the conversation will go or be perceived. Be intentional in your tone of voice and the words you use to initiate a conversation. Using soft start-up techniques such as “I messages” and positive statements to start conversations allows your partner to better receive and understand what you are saying.

3. Share stories
Sharing stories is a great way for you and your partner to get to know each other better. Share about your cultural and religious experiences in a way that is not threatening and invites understanding.
 
4. Participate before negotiating. 
It’s important to show genuine interest and curiosity in your partner’s beliefs and practices. Go with them to their religious events and services. This is not a promise to leave your own beliefs and convert, but it is a powerful way to communicate that you value them and are embracing who they are. 
 
5.  Make Repairs. 
Mistakes are inevitable. Don’t beat yourself up, just apologize and move forward. Well-used humor (not sarcasm) can help ease tense moments. The main goal of making a repair is to determine what when wrong (without blaming) and resume being on the same team to address an issue instead of treating each other as the issue that needs to be fixed.
 
6. Consider therapy.
Talking about faith is deeply personal and can be hard, despite our best efforts. Some differences might seem impossible to overcome. Seeking the help of a professional can provide relief. Find a therapist who specializes in helping interfaith couples.
It is unlikely that you will change someone else’s views, feelings, or beliefs on the topic of religion or spirituality, but you can practice respecting each other’s beliefs and purposely refrain from criticizing or attempting to sway them.

Gottman maintains that disagreements provide an opportunity for increased intimacy and connection, and religious differences provide an opportunity for increased respect, understanding, and love.Working Through Religious Differences in Marriage

By: Elizabeth Davis, Utah State University Extension professor, Elizabeth.Davis@usu.edu




October Yard and Garden Tips

Autumn is officially here, and there is much to look forward to – pumpkins on the porch, apple cider, cooler temperatures, and walks through crunchy leaves. But before you get too comfortable, don’t forget there are yard and garden end-of-season tasks to complete. Here are tips from the Utah State University Extension Gardeners Almanac to help. Included are links to fact sheets and videos for further information.

  • Learn about average first and last frost dates around the state.
  • Consider adding a smaller structure such as a low tunnel or a larger high tunnel to extend your growing season. Take note of varying construction and modification information.
  • Learn how and when to harvest winter squash and store in a cool (50-55°F), dry location.
  • Plant garlic cloves from mid-October through early November.
  • Refer to this list of fall cleanup chores and good landscape practices to get your yard ready for winter.
  • Remove vegetable plants from the garden once harvest is complete to reduce overwintering sites for insect pests.
  • Protect tomatoes from early frost by covering the plants with a blanket or tarp.
  • Place mulch over carrotsbeets and parsnips to prevent the ground around them from freezing.
  • Rototill leaves, compost, or manure into the vegetable garden to enhance soil microbe activity.
  • Prune roses by heading back excessively long canes to prevent damage from heavy snow loads.
  • Cut back ornamental grasses in snow-prone areas once the foliage has died down. Otherwise leave them until spring and enjoy the vertical accent during the winter.
  • Plant spring-blooming bulbs through early November.
  • Plant trees and shrubs in the fall to enhance root establishment.
  • Dig tender perennials such as gladiolas, dahlias, begonias, and canna lilies after the foliage has died down, and store them in a cool (45-50 °F), dry place.
  • Protect trunks of young trees from winter cracking by wrapping them with a white reflective tree wrap.
  • Dig and remove annual flowers.
  • Plant cold-hardy annuals, including pansies, primrose, kale, and ornamental cabbage.
  • Prune raspberry canes to the ground after they have fruited.
  • Control tough perennial weeds such as field bindweed (a.k.a. morning glory). Refer to this list of weed control options.
  • Mow grass to a height of 1-to-1½ inches at the end of the season to minimize disease problems.
  • Apply a quick-release nitrogen fertilizer after the last mowing (late October to early November) for early greening next spring.

Pests and Problems:

  • Send diseased vegetable plants and leaves to the local landfill.
  • Use burlap or other soft materials to wrap evergreens to prevent snow breakage.
  • Treat stone fruits (cherries, peaches, nectarines, apricots and plums) for coryneum blight at 50% leaf drop.
  • Clean up and discard all fallen fruit to reduce overwintering sites for disease and insect pests.
  • For more tips, visit garden.usu.edu. Here you will find information on gardening courses, growing and maintaining the yard and garden, drought resources, and the Extension Gardener’s Almanac with tips for each month.

By: Utah State University Extension horticulturists